The Solemnity of All Saints' Day
All Saints' Day Definition and Meaning
What is All Saints' Day? It is when the Catholic Church (and some Protestant Churches) commemorate every saint, known and unknown. The eve of All Saints' Day is known as All Hallows' Eve, or Hallowe'en. All Saints' Day falls on November 1.
Prayers: All Saints' Day Prayers
Basic Facts About All Saints' Day
Liturgical Color(s): White
Type of Holiday: Solemnity, Holy Day of Obligation (West); Feast (East)
Time of Year: November 1 (in Orthodox Churches, the Sunday after Pentecost)
: One day
Celebrates/Symbolizes: All saints, known and unknown
Alternate Names: All Hallows, Hallowmas, Hallowe'en
Scriptural References: Mark 12:26-27; Ephesians 6:18; Hebrews 12:1, Revelation 5:8
The Church celebrates holy men and women throughout the year on their respective saint days, but the Solemnity of All Saints is when the Church honors every saint: those officially known and honored on the Church calendar, and saints known only to God. This concept is similar to the American holidays of Veterans Day and Presidents' Day, on which a group of people are honored. While we have information about many saints, and we honor them on specific days, there are many unknown or unsung saints who may have been forgotten or never honored specifically. On All Saints' Day, we celebrate these holy individuals and ask for their prayers and intercessions.
The concept of All Saints' Day is connected to the doctrine of the Communion of Saints. This is the Catholic teaching that all of God's people on heaven, Earth, and in Purgatory are spiritually connected and united. In other words, Catholic and Orthodox Christians (and some Protestants) believe that the saints of God are just as alive as those on Earth, and they are constantly interceding on our behalf. Our connection with the saints in heaven is grounded in a tight-knit communion. The saints are not gods, and they are not omnipresent or omniscient like God is. However, because of our common communion with and through Jesus Christ, our prayers are joined with the heavenly community of Christians. Saint Cyril of Jerusalem (AD 350) testifies to this belief:
We mention those who have fallen asleep: first the patriarchs, prophets, apostles, and martyrs, that through their prayers and supplications God would receive our petition...(Catechetical Lecture 23:9).
The Catechism of the Catholic Church concisely describes this communion among believers, by which we are connected to Christ, and thus to one another:
Being more closely united to Christ, those who dwell in heaven fix the whole Church more firmly in holiness...They do not cease to intercede with the Father for us...So by their fraternal concern is our weakness greatly helped. ...as Christian communion among our fellow pilgrims brings us closer to Christ, so our communion with the saints joins us to Christ, from whom as from its fountain and head issues all grace, and the life of the People of God itself: We worship Christ as God's Son; we love the martyrs as the Lord's disciples and imitators, and rightly so because of their matchless devotion towards their king and master. May we also be their companions and fellow disciples! (CCC 956, 957)
There are thousands of canonized saints, that is, those individuals officially recognized by the Church as holy men and women worthy of our imitation. Because miracles have been associated with them, and their lives have been fully examined and found holy by the Church, we have assurance they are prime examples of holiness, and powerful intercessors before God on our behalf.
There are also many patron saints, guardians, or protectors of different areas and states of life. For instance, Saint Vitus is the patron saint against oversleeping, and Saint Joseph of Cupertino is the patron saint of air travelers. It may sound odd to have a patron saint "against oversleeping," but the Church has something meaningful for every area of our human lives. All of these saints are celebrated throughout the year, as many have their own feast days (for instance, Saint Hilary of Poitiers, whose feast day is celebrated January 13).
Christians have been officially honoring saints and martyrs since at least the second century AD. The Martyrdom of Polycarp, probably written near the middle of the second century, attests to this reality:
Accordingly, we afterwards took up his bones, more precious than the most exquisite jewels, and more pure than gold, and deposited them in a fitting place, so that when being gathered together, as opportunity is allowed us, with joy and rejoicing, the Lord shall grant us to celebrate the anniversary of his martyrdom, both in memory of those who have already finished their course, and for the exercising and preparation of those yet to walk in their steps (18).
Initially the calendars of saints and martyrs varied by location, with churches honoring local saints. However, gradually feast days became more universal. The first reference to a general feast celebrating all saints occurs in Saint Ephrem the Syrian (d. AD 373). Saint John Chrysostom (d. AD 407) assigned a day to the feast, the first Sunday after Pentecost, where in the Eastern Churches the feast is celebrated to this day.
In the West, this date was probably originally used, and then the feast was moved to May 13. The current observance (November 1) probably originates from the time of Pope Gregory III (d. AD 741), and was likely first observed on this date in Germany. This fact makes the connection of the All Saints Feast with the pagan festival Samhain less likely, since Samhain was an Irish pagan feast, rather than German.
The vigil of the Feast (the eve) has grown up in English-speaking countries as a festival in itself, All Hallows' Eve, or Hallowe'en. While some Christians refuse to observe the holiday, considering it "pagan," as far as the Church is concerned the date is simply the eve of the feast of All Saints. In fact, many customs of Hallowe'en reflect the Christian belief that on the feast's vigils we mock evil because, as Christians, it has no real power over us.
Various customs have developed related to Hallowe'en. In the Middle Ages, poor people in the community begged for "soul cakes," and upon receiving these doughnuts, they would agree to pray for departed souls. This is the root of our modern day "trick-or-treating." The custom of masks and costumes developed to mock evil and perhaps confuse the evil spirits by dressing as one of their own. Some Christians visit cemeteries on Hallowe'en, not to practice evil, but to commemorate departed relatives and friends, with picnics and the last flowers of the year. The day after All Saints' Day is called All Souls' Day, a day to remember and offer prayers up on behalf of all of the faithful departed. In many cultures it seems the two days share many customs.
Worship and Prayer Resources
Prayers for the Feast of All Saints
All Saints' Day Prayers of the Faithful
Frequently Asked Questions
1. Isn't it idolatry to celebrate All Saints' Day? Good question. Many non-Catholics, especially those from more fundamentalist backgrounds, assume that celebrating the saints means somehow worshiping them. This leads some Christians to claim that All Saints' Day is an idolatrous holiday. The Church, East and West, has always distinguished between worship (latria), given to God alone, and veneration (dulia), which may be given to the saints. The highest form of veneration (hyperdulia) is due to the Blessed Virgin Mary. If someone is treating a saint as one should treat God, then yes, that is idolatry. That being said, Catholics believe that the saints have a role in our lives, as intercessors on our behalf, because we are all united by our communion in Christ. The saints are continually praying for us and interceding on our behalf, on account of their closeness to Christ. This is because God is the God of the living, not of the dead. As such, asking a saint for intercession is no more idolatrous than asking a holy friend or pastor to pray for you.
Remembering and honoring the saints are beneficial practices, because it is good to remember the heroes of the faith and follow their examples. Some fundamentalist Christians seem to strongly oppose remembering and celebrating the lives of great Christian men and women, yet have no problem celebrating the lives of secular heroes like George Washington. All Saints' Day is kind of like a Christian Memorial Day or Presidents' Day – a day to celebrate the lives of all the great heroes of the Christian faith and to celebrate the deep communion we have with them. While celebrating secular heroes is admirable, how much more admirable is celebrating those who fully dedicated their lives to Christ?
2. Why do Catholics pray to saints?
This page written by David Bennett.